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CHAPTER V: THE PRINCIPLES OF COOPERATIVE ACTION.

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    • Abstract:
      This chapter of the book "The Functions of the Executive," by Chester I. Barnard (1938), illustrates the idea that there are no coöperative systems in which physical, biological, personal, and social elements or factors are not all present. Barnard provides four illustrations of this fact, which will also illustrate a number of the propositions presented in previous chapters, in the settings of concrete coöperative situations. According to Barnard, the significance of the illustrations lies in their application to four topics: (1) the nature of the joint limitations on coöperation "imposed" by physical, biological, and social factors; (2) the processes of overcoming those limitations in purposive conduct; (3) their bearing on effectiveness of coöperative effort; and (4) their bearing on the efficiency of coöperative effort. Barnard concludes the chapter by summarizing the most essential ideas derived from Part I of this book, which are the fundamental assumptions of the exposition of theory and the analysis of practice illustrated in the chapters to follow.