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CHAPTER X: THE BASES AND KINDS OF SPECIALIZATIONS.

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    • Abstract:
      This chapter of the book "The Functions of the Executive," by Chester I. Barnard (1938), explores the bases and kinds of specializations. According to Barnard, three terms are used to denominate the same subject: "division of labor," "specialization," and "functionalization." The "division of labor" usually implies a general social setting and an aspect of large economic systems. "Functionalization" is generally used within large organizations with emphasis upon a particular kind of work as a function of an organic system of work. "Specialization" places the emphasis upon the person or groups of persons. Wherever organization is present, what Barnard calls "associational specialization" is at once initiated. By this Barnard means the repeated mutual adjustment of persons to persons in coöperative effort. Barnard explores five bases of specialization of organizations (and of individuals): (1) the place where work is done; (2) the time at which work is done; (3) the persons with whom work is done; (4) the things upon which work is done; and (5) the method or process by which work is done.