Axiology is a philosophical strand that discusses the structure, characteristics, and theories surrounding values. Contemporary studies of values have been the focus of researchers from various fields of knowledge. In the area of Science Education, for example, discussions about values have permeated studies that cover various aspects, such as teacher training, teaching practice, curriculum, teaching and learning, etc. However, there is no study that systematically presents the axiological dimension from the context of Science Education. In this sense, we investigate the values discussed in research in Science Education and how they are approached, considering the works published in the minutes of the last 20 years of the Encontro Nacional de Pesquisa em Educação em Ciências (ENPEC). Methodologically, we identified the studies that have the term 'value' and / or 'axiology', as well as their variation, forming the corpus that was analyzed through Discursive Textual Analysis, in which the categories stand out: Affective and emotional aspects; Environmental education; Sociocultural factors; CTS and Socio-scientific Issues; Teacher training; Pedagogical practice; History and Philosophy of Science. Among the results, it was observed that social value is the most discussed in research in Science Education, followed by cultural and moral/ethical values, important for the development of critical awareness of students. However, there are indications that it is necessary to promote educational practices that consider other values, such as cognitive, academic, economic, vital, professional, political, ecological, which are also essential for citizen formation, social life and intellectual and social development character. In this perspective, the Freirean Thematic Approach presents the political, pedagogical and philosophical assumptions that make possible an ethical-critical educational practice that considers the valuesimportant for the humanization process of the students.