This systematic literature review explores the role of performance measurement systems (PMSs) in managing multiple logics in social enterprises. Social enterprises are hybrid organizations that simultaneously pursue a social mission (social logic) and financial sustainability (commercial logic). Satisfying multiple logics often leads to tensions, which are addressed and managed through PMSs. For this, we conduct a systematic literature review to derive our conclusions. PMSs in social enterprises may assume the roles of mediator, disrupter and symbolizer. The PMS works as a mediator in combination with sincere stakeholder involvement when both logics are represented in the PMS. If a PMS represents only one logic, it increases tensions and the PMS becomes a disrupter. When the PMS is used to enhance legitimacy, the PMS assumes the role of a symbolizer. In particular, we find that PMSs are most useful for monitoring performance and enhancing legitimacy. The role of PMSs in decision-making is limited due to difficulties of integrating social and commercial logics into a single PMS. Several factors—such as decision-makers’ influence—further shape the role of PMSs.